Damaged skin - Scars

The skin insulates and protects the body from the external environment. When the skin is wounded, the body automatically activates a natural biological phenomenon: healing.

It is a complex restorative process during which the body needs to stop the bleeding and protect, cleanse and close the wound. The injured tissue has to be rebuilt to resemble the initial tissue as closely as possible.

Step 1

Stage 1: Priming (lasts two to four days)

First, a blood clot forms to help stop bleeding. Then, very quickly, the body will prepare itself to fight infection and defend itself against microbes and foreign bodies. The damaged tissues are destroyed thanks to special cells that absorb them. The blood capillaries are more permeable and promote the movement of blood plasma and immune cells (e.g. antibodies) to the location of the trauma.

Step 2

Stage 2: Repairing (lasts 10 to 15 days)

The small vessels that were injured during the skin trauma will gradually rebuild themselves. The body starts to fill in the lost substance with a new tissue by synthesizing the collagen fibres with fibroblasts.
An epithelium forms on the uppermost layer of the skin. At the same time, the wound will shrink, allowing the edges of the wound to move together until the wound closes completely. Numerous cells and molecules are activated. This stage is important to prevent aesthetic damage, keeping in mind that we do not all heal equally. The darker the skin and the younger we are, the higher the risk of a visible scar. Moreover, healing is less effective on some body parts, including the chest, sternum, back and joints.

Step 3

Stage 3: Maturing (lasts two months to two years)

During this stage collagen and elastin fibres will become denser and grow to structure the skin. The vascular bed will also prepare to return to a "normal" state. As a result, the skin’s resistance will increase, and so will its elasticity, allowing it to be firmer. The healed area remains fragile for two years while the skin is restored to its initial balance.

Lesions can be classified based on their biological and clinical characteristics: how much moisture/nutrition they need and how much occlusion they need.

What are the different types of lesions?

Oozing lesions: lesions subject to maceration that need to be dried out with a non-occlusive product that allows air to reach the wound. Examples include:

  • Weeping nappy rash,
  • Skin fold maceration,
  • Chicken pox with oozing lesions, and
  • Blisters


Non-oozing lesions: superficial to moderate lesions that need moisture from a semi-occlusive product that is breathable. Examples include:

  • After a surgical procedure (e.g. sutures);
  • Cuts, scrapes and other everyday injuries after wound has dried;
  • Chicken pox in the healing phase;
  • After a cosmetic procedure (e.g. peel, laser treatment, permanent hair removal, tattoo and tattoo removal);
  • Non-oozing nappy rash; and
  • Radiation therapy.


Non-oozing lesions: moderate to major lesions that require lipid replenishing nutrition from an occlusive product that forms a barrier. Examples include:

  • Chapping, dry patches, pulpitis, etc.;
  • Burns;
  • Scratching; and
  • Abrasive laser treatments.

Body areas

First of all, it is essential to take into account the topography of the scar. Some areas of the body don’t heal as well as others.

For example, there is a risk that the edges of a wound located on the back or chest will separate, causing an increased risk of hypertrophic or keloid scarring.

Wounds on the knees or ankles require a lot of time to heal so it is critical to carefully monitor them and take care of them on a regular basis to promote proper healing.
Genetics also play a very significant role. You should always refer to past scars to assess risks of improper healing. Keep in mind that the healing process is not over once the wound has closed.

Healing is a matter of months and varies from one individual to another.


Once the scar has closed, you will want to take some precautions for several months. Depending on where the scar is located on the body, you should take care not to put too much pressure on it (for example, don’t carry heavy things if the scar is on your back) because this increases the risk that the edges will separate, damaging the fragile fibres under the skin holding the wound opening together.

The scar should evolve as naturally as possible, but some products can limit scabs, itching and pain, which impact healing quality.


Lastly, you absolutely must choose an optimum photoprotection product with a high protection factor and apply it frequently to achieve lasting anti-UV ray protection. Damaged skin that is exposed to UV rays is more likely to have post-scarring hyperpigmentation. Protecting yourself is not just important in the summer; UV rays are bombarding you throughout the year, even through clouds, windows, windshields, and more. The risk of scar hyperpigmentation usually lasts six months, but can continue for up to two years. Only a doctor can evaluate whether the risk has diminished.

Some people have a tendency to experience difficulty healing.

A hypertrophic scar is an active scar that swells up six weeks to three months after the procedure and becomes red. It may slowly progress into a keloid.

There are also cases of abnormal healing where cellular and vascular flows continue developing next to the clot.

In all cases, you should have your scar checked within three months following the procedure, or accident if severe, and see a health professional if it swells up or becomes red.

Weakened skin



Protect the damaged area according to your doctor’s instructions. If it is a minor lesion for which you did not visit a doctor, you should start by disinfecting the wound, then choose a treatment product suited to the type of lesion. Talk with your pharmacist if you have any questions.

If the damaged area will be exposed to daylight, you should protect it from UV rays using a photoprotection product until the skin is completely repaired to avoid hyperpigmentation that could leave a permanent mark.


It is important to clean and disinfect all wounds before you apply a treatment product.


The three major types of lesions outlined above need different treatments that can create an environment that promotes skin repair and addresses their specific needs: drying, moisturising, nourishing, etc. Choose repairing treatments that contain soothing active ingredients to reduce the discomfort and itching sensations that are frequent during the repair phase.

They also need to have anti-bacterial active ingredients to prevent bacteria from proliferating. All of these products are designed for use on minor lesions or after you have completed the treatment prescribed by your doctor and will help optimise the repair process.